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Oilfield Glossary
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Drilling Fluids

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 drilling fluids Numerous types of fluids are used in the drilling process to maintain the structural integrity of the borehole, to cool the drill bit and to carry cuttings from the bit to the surface. Drilling fluids span the range of liquid and gaseous fluids and mixtures of fluid emulsions, gases and solids. Choosing and maintaining the proper fluid for a particular job can be challenging. Terms in this discipline range from abrasion test, invert emulsion and rheology, to viscosity and zero-zero gels. All have been reviewed by drilling-fluid experts, and many are enhanced by high-quality illustrations.

A

API Recommended Practice 10B Recommended Practice for Testing Well Cements acrylate polymer alkalinity test antifoam agent
API Specification 10A – Specification for Cements and Materials for Well Cementing active sulfide alum API
abrasion test activity of aqueous solutions aluminum stearate API cement
absolute volume acyclic compound amides API fluid loss test
accretion aerobic amines API fluid-loss test
acetic acid agglomeration AMPS API water
acid aggregate anaerobic apparent viscosity
acidity aggregation anhydrite aromatic content test
acrylamide acrylate polymer air cut mud aniline point test aromatic hydrocarbon
acrylamide polymer air-cut mud anion asphaltic mud additive
acrylamide-acrylate polymer aliphatic compound anionic ASTM
acrylamido methyl propane sulfonate polymer alkaline anode attapulgite
acrylamido-methyl-propane sulfonate polymer alkalinity antifoam AV

B

bactericide bentonite equivalent bland coring fluid Brookfield viscometer
balanced activity oil mud bicarb BOD buffer
balanced-activity oil mud bicarbonate bomb buffer solution
barite bichromate salt bond log buffered mud
barrel equivalent Bingham plastic model bottomhole circulating temperature buffered solution
baryte bioaccumulation bottomhole static temperature bulk volume
base exchange bioassay bottoms up mud sample BWOB
base oil biochemical oxygen demand bottoms-up mud sample BWOC
base slurry biocide breaker BWOW
BBL or bbl bioconcentration bridging agent by weight of blend
Bc biodegradation bridging material by weight of cement
Bearden units of consistency biopolymer brine by weight of water
beneficiate black list bromide brine bypass
beneficiation Blaine fineness bromocresol green bypassed mud
bentonite

C

cake cation-exchange capacity circulation time COD
cake thickness cationic citric acid colloid
calcium bromide caustic extraction test clathrate colloidal
calcium carbonate caustic potash clay colloidal solids
calcium chloride caustic soda clay extender colloidal suspension
calcium contamination cavings clay water interaction consistency
calcium hydroxide CEC clay-water interaction contact time
calcium mud cellulosic polymer clear brine continuous phase
calcium oxide centipoise clear water drilling conventional mud
calcium sulfate centrifuge clear-water drilling copolymer
calcium test CERCLA closed mud system copper carbonate
capillary suction time test cesium acetate cloud point coring fluid
capillary tube viscometer cesium formate cloud point glycol corrosion coupon
capillary-suction-time test chelating agent CMC coupon
carbon dioxide chemical barrel CMC-Hi Vis creaming
carbonate ion chemical oxygen demand CMC-HVT critical rate
carbonate test Chenevert Method CMC-Lo Vis curing
carboxymethyl hydroxyethylcellulose chloride test CMC-LVT cut point
carboxymethyl starch chromate salt CMHEC Cutt point
carboxymethylcellulose chrome free CMS cuttings
carrying capacity chrome lignite coalesce cuttings lifting
cathode chrome lignosulfonate coalescence CWA
cation chrome-free coarse cycle time
cation exchange capacity chromic salt

D

DD dichromate salt direct emulsifier drilled solids
deflocculant diesel oil mud direct indicating viscometer drill-in fluid
deflocculate diesel-oil mud direct-indicating viscometer drilling detergent
deflocculated mud diesel-oil plug dispersant drilling fluid
deflocculation differential pressure sticking dispersion drilling mud
defoamer differential sticking dissolved solids drilling-fluid engineer
dehydration difficult to disperse Draeger tube dynamic filter press
demulsifier difficult to disperse in salt Dräger tube dynamic filtration
derrickman dilution drill in fluid dynamic-aging test
dewatering dilution water drill solids

E

easy to disperse electrohygrometer end point equivalent sack
easy to disperse in salt emulsifier endpoint equivalent weight
ECD emulsion EPA ES test
EDTA emulsion mud epm expanding cement
effective laminar flow encapsulation equivalent circulating density external phase
electrical stability test

F

Fann viscometer filter loss fine fluid loss control
fatty acid filter media fines fluid loss control material
fatty acid soap filter medium fish eye fluid-loss additive
fatty-acid soap filter press flake LCM fluid-loss control
ferro-chrome lignosulfonate filtercake flake lost circulation material fluid-loss-control material
fiber LCM filtercake quality flake lost-circulation material fly ash
fiber lost circulation material filter-cake quality flash point foam breaker
fiber lost-circulation material filtercake thickness flat gels foamed cement
fill cement filter-cake thickness floc foaming agent
film forming amine filtrate flocculant formaldehyde
film-forming amine filtrate tracer flocculate formate
filter cake filtrate volume flocculation formation damage
filter cake quality filtration flowline mud sample free fluid
filter cake thickness filtration test cell flowline sample funnel viscosity
filter cell filtration tester fluid loss

G

galena gelled mud glycol grind
Garrett Gas Train gelled up mud granular LCM guar gum
gas hydrate gelled-up mud granular lost circulation material gumbo
gas migration gels granular lost-circulation material gun the pits
gas-cut mud geothermal gradient gray list gunk plug
gel GGT greasing out gunk squeeze
gel strength gilsonite green list gunning the pits
gelation glass jar test grey list gyp mud

H

haematite HGS HSE hydrometer
hard water high-gravity solids humic acid hydrophile-lipophile balance number
hardness ion high-pressure, high-temperature filtration test humidity hydrophilic
HE starch high-pressure, high-temperature viscometer humidity meter hydrophobic
header box high-specific-gravity solids hydrate hydrostatic pressure
heavy metal HLB number hydration hydroxyethyl starch
HEC hole cleaning hydraulic cement hydroxyethylcellulose
hectorite hot lime hydrocyclone hydroxypropyl starch
hematite HP starch hydrocycloning hygrometer
Herschel Bulkley fluid HPHT filtration test hydrogen sulfide hygroscopic
Herschel-Bulkley fluid HPHT viscometer hydrolysis

I

IEOM inhibitive mud invert-emulsion oil mud iron oxide
ilmenite interfacial tension IO iron sulfide
indicator intermediate ion exchange ISO
inert sulfide internal phase IP isomerized olefin
inhibit invert emulsion IPA isopropanol
inhibition invert emulsion oil mud iron carbonate isopropyl alcohol

J

jar test jet hopper

K

kaolinite kill-weight fluid kilogram per cubic meter kilopascal
kill weight fluid kill-weight mud

L

lag time lignin low colloid oil mud low-solids, nondispersed mud
LAO lignite low gravity solids low-specific-gravity solids
latex lignosulfonate low solids mud low-yield clay
lb/bbl lime mud low solids nondispersed mud LS
lbm/bbl linear alphaolefin low specific gravity solids lubricant
LC50 lipophilic low yield clay lubricity
LCM liquid additive low-colloid oil mud lyophilic
lead cement lost circulation low-gravity solids lyophilic colloid
leonardite lost returns low-pressure, low-temperature filtration test lyophobic
LGS lost-circulation material low-solids mud lyophobic colloid

M

Mf methylene blue test mud additive mud pit
magnesium test methylglucoside drilling fluid mud aging cell mud program
make up water microgel mud balance mud report
make-up water milk emulsion mud mud cell mud retort
Marsh funnel milligrams per kilogram mud cleaner mud scale
Marsh funnel viscosity milligrams per liter mud cup mud still
mass balance Minerals Management Service mud density mud tracer
material balance equation mixed metal hydroxide mud engineer mud up
Material Safety Data Sheet mixed metal silicate mud filtrate mud weight
material-balance equation mixed-metal hydroxide mud hopper mud-aging cell
MBT test mixed-metal silicate mud house mudcake
medium MMH mud in mudding off
meniscus MMS mud in sample mudding up
methane hydrate monomer mud out mud-in sample
methyl orange montmorillonite mud out sample mud-out sample
methyl orange alkalinity MSDS mud oven mysid shrimp
methylene blue dye mud

N

naphthenic hydrocarbon native-solids mud Newtonian fluid normality
native clay neutralization nonconductive drilling fluid NPDES
native solids mud neutralize non-Newtonian fluid

O

OBR oil in water emulsion oil-in-water emulsion organophilic lignite
OCMA oil mud oil-mud emulsifier OSHA
octahedral layer oil on cuttings oil-water interface osmosis
octanol oil water interface olefinic hydrocarbon osmotic pressure
octyl alcohol oil/brine ratio oligomer OSPAR
oil base mud oil/water ratio OOC OWR
oil content oil-base mud organophilic oxygen scavenger
oil emulsion mud oil-emulsion mud organophilic clay

P

Pf peptizing agent polyanionic cellulose ppg
Pm permafrost polyanionic lignin ppm
PAC pH polyelectrolyte PPT
packer fluid pH test polyglycerol precipitate
paddle blender phenolphthalein polymer precipitation
paddle mixer phosphate salt polyol pregelatinized starch
PAG PHPA polyolefin prehydrate
PAO PHPA mud polyphosphates prehydrated bentonite
paraffinic hydrocarbon pill pore pressure transmission prehydration
paraformaldehyde pilot test pore-pressure transmission preservative
PARCOM plastic fluid portland cement pressurized mud balance
particle plugging apparatus plastic viscosity portland cement clinker primary cementing
particle size distribution plugging material potassium ion progressive gels
particle-plugging apparatus PNP potassium mud propylene glycol normal propyl ether
particle-plugging test POD pounds per barrel pseudoplastic
particle-size distribution point of departure pour point pumpability
parts per billion poise power law fluid pumping time
parts per million polar power-law fluid PV
pascal polar compound pozzolan PVT
peptization polyacrylate pozzolanic pyrophosphate
peptize polyalkalene glycol PPA pyrrhotite
peptized clay polyalphaolefin ppb

Q

QA quat quaternary amine quick lime
quality assurance quat amine quebracho

R

rate of shear relative humidity retort solids rheology modifier
RCRA relaxed filtrate oil mud returns right angle set
red mud relaxed-filtrate oil mud RH right-angle set
redox reserve mud pit RH RM
reduced water slurry reserve-mud pit rheological rolling aging test
reduced-water slurry resin rheological property rolling-aging test
relative filtrate volume retort rheology RP

S

sack sheen sodium bicarbonate strength retrogression
sacrificial anode sheen test sodium carbonate stress corrosion cracking
sag shrimp test sodium chromate stress-corrosion cracking
salt siderite sodium dichromate styrene
saltwater flow silica layer sodium hydroxide sulfate reducing bacteria
saltwater mud silicate sodium phosphate sulfate resistance
sand silicate anion sodium polyacrylate sulfate resistant cement
sand test silicate mud sodium silicate sulfate-reducing bacteria
sand trap silicic acid soft water sulfate-resistant cement
SAPP silt sour gas sulfide
saturated solution silver nitrate SPA sulfide scavenger
SBR sintered spot sulfide stress cracking
scale sized calcium carbonate spotting sulfide test
scavenger sized salt spotting fluid sulfonated asphalt
SCC slaked lime spud mud sulfonated polystyrene-maleic anhydride copolymer
seawater mud sloughing shale spurt loss surface tension
sedimentation slug squeeze cementing surfactant
sepiolite slugging pill SRB suspended solids
sequestering agent slurries SSMA SWR
shale slurry SSMA copolymer syn
shaly slurry density stability meter synthetic base fluid
shear rate slurry stability starch synthetic base mud
shear strength slurry yield static aging test synthetic/brine ratio
shear strength measurement test smectite clay static filter press synthetic/water ratio
shear stress soap static filtration synthetic-base fluid
shearometer soda ash static-aging test synthetic-base mud
shear-strength measurement test sodium acid pyrophosphate stearate

T

tail cement ten minute gel strength thermally activated mud emulsion titration
tall oil ten second gel strength thickening time total hardness test
TAME ten-minute gel strength thinner total solids
tannic acid ten-second gel strength thixotropic tracer
tannin tensile strength thixotropy trip pill
temperature gradient tetrahedral layer titrate turbulent flow
temperature stability thermal gradient

U

ultrafine undersaturated fluid unweighted mud U-tube effect

V

VAMA VG meter vinyl polymer viscosity
vapor pressure V-G meter vis viscosity and gel-strength test
versenate vinyl acetate-maleic anhydride copolymer

W

wall cake water in oil emulsion water-base drilling fluid weight material
wall sticking water loss water-base mud weighted mud
wastewater cleanup water mud water-in-oil emulsion weighting agent
water base drilling fluid water mud emulsifier water-mud emulsifier weighting material
water base mud water to cement ratio water-to-cement ratio whole mud dilution
water clarification water, oil and solids test weight whole-mud dilution

X

xanthan gum XC polymer xylene

Y

yield yield point yield stress YP

Z

zero zero gels zinc basic carbonate zinc carbonate zinc oxide
zero-zero gels zinc bromide zinc chloride