1. n. [Geophysics]
A pair of opposite (and equal) electrical charges. The strength of the dipole is a vector quantity whose direction points from the positive to the negative charge and whose magnitude is the product of the absolute value of the charge times the separation. A point dipole is an idealized mathematical representation of a dipole in which the separation of the charges goes to zero while their charge increases so that the product (dipole strength) remains constant.
2. n. [Geophysics]
Two poles of opposite polarity that can generate a field, such as an electric or magnetic field or a dipole source and dipole receiver used in sonic logging for excitation and detection of shear waves.
3. n. [Geophysics]
A small antenna used in electromagnetic surveying that can be represented mathematically as a dipole.