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clay-water interaction

1. n. [Drilling Fluids]

An all-inclusive term to describe various progressive interactions between clay minerals and water. In the dry state, clay packets exist in face-to-face stacks like a deck of playing cards, but clay packets begin to change when exposed to water. Five descriptive terms describe the progressive interactions that can occur in a clay-water system, such as a water mud.

  • Hydration occurs as clay packets absorb water and swell.
  • Dispersion (or disaggregation) causes clay platelets to break apart and disperse into the water due to loss of attractive forces as water forces the platelets farther apart.
  • Flocculation begins when mechanical shearing stops and platelets previously dispersed come together due to the attractive force of surface charges on the platelets.
  • Deflocculation, the opposite effect, occurs by addition of chemical deflocculant to flocculated mud; the positive edge charges are covered and attraction forces are greatly reduced.
  • Aggregation, a result of ionic or thermal conditions, alters the hydrational layer around clay platelets, removes the deflocculant from positive edge charges and allows platelets to assume a face-to-face structure.

See: acrylamide acrylate polymerBingham plastic modelcalcium contaminationcalcium mudcapillary suction time testclosed mud systemcolloidcolloidal solidsdewateringdispersantencapsulationgel strengthgyp mudhydrophilichygroscopicinhibitive mudion exchangekaolinitelignosulfonatelime mudlow-yield claymake-up watermontmorillonitenative claypeptized claypeptizing agentphosphate saltPHPA mudpotassium mudprehydrated bentoniteprehydrationrheologysmectite claysulfonated polystyrene-maleic anhydride copolymertannic acidtanninvinyl acetate-maleic anhydride copolymerwater clarification

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